Malaviya’s Vison, Globalization and Higher Education: Concern for Social Science Discipline
Dr. Anup K. Mishra
Education, especially the Higher education, is a liberating force as also an evolutionary forces , which enables individuals to rise from more materiality to superior planes of intellectual and spiritual consciousness. Education is a true blend of past, present and future, so that the new generations receive the accumulated lessons of knowledge and carry it forward. In the event of Globalization and liberalization, every sphere of our life is concerned. The field of education is also no exception to it. Quite unfortunately our present education system in the field of social science does not provide any answer to meet the current challenges of this new country. as a result, there is increasing frustration among the youth of our society and this ultimately has posed almost unanswerable threat of unemployment for the Government So, the present paper is an effort to see that what should be the role of the discipline of social sciences, in solving the problem of unemployment, to standardize the competitiveness among the youths and in producing ‘Leadership’ qualities among the students and what kind of changes are necessary to meet the challenge ahead. We should like to clarity that here leadership does not include political or religious leadership, rather we would like to confine our attention to the leadership in the Business at Industrial environments, in the present globalization era. As a faculty member of the Banaras Hindu University, it is also our duty to visualize the vision of Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya, who was never against any positive change viz. his main cards to win the game of life was ‘Character industry-integrity’. So the present paper also correlate the Mahamana’s vision for higher Education in present Globalisation era.
Present Situation of Higher Education
The University Grants Commission (UGC) was established in 1953 to enhance and maintain the standard of high education. But more- or less the situations are same in the Golden jubilee year in 2003and in the year 2006 as it was in 1953. The numbers of the students are growing but the standard of the Higher Education is declining, especially in the field of Social Sciences.
Table-1All India Growth of Universities since 1950-51
Universities/University level Institutions
Source: The Hindu; Jan 5, 2003 * Tentative
Table-2All India Growth of Students since 1950-51
% increase over preceding year
*Around 1 Crore
Source: The Hindu; Jan 5, 2003
* Tentative (UGC website)
Viewing the above tables (1 & 2) we can see the decadal growth in number of universities, university level institutions and colleges and also the decaded growth of all India students since the period 1950-51.
The University or university level institutions was only 32 in the year 1950-51 which rose up to 258 in the year 2000-2001 and further 274 in 2005-06 which is 13 fold growth while the growth of colleges is 25 fold i.e. it was only 695 in the year 1950-51 and rose up to 12346 in the year 2000-2001 and further 14000 in 2005-06. Observing the table no.2; we can view that the all India growth of students since 1950-51 is nearly 30 fold i.e., it was 173696 in the year 1990-91 and rose up to 8399443 in the year 2000-2001 and further around one crore in 2005-06.
So the question arises here, that how to cope with the growing numbers and how to maintain the standard of Higher education. Here one more fact is necessary to be quoted that out of 14 thousand colleges and 274 University/Institutions only 6 hundred colleges and 167 University/Institution is capable to take the grants from UGC (T.V. Rajeshwar Rao, 2009)1
Table-3Level- wise students in the Institutions Year 2000-2001
% increase over preceding year
Source: The Hindu; Jan 5, 2003
Despite the multi-fold growth in the Institutions and the students, the access to and quality of higher education remain limited. Table 3 indicates the level-wise students in the institution which shows that the level of higher education are limited in the graduation level while only 0.14 and 0.54 are in the level of M-Phil and Ph. D respectively in the year 2000-01.
Table-4Persons-days of works & Unemployment (in Million)
Persons-days of work*
Source: *Times of India, Swami nomics, Aug. 11, 2002**NSSO, Employment and Unemployment various round
Over viewing the person days of work and unemployment in the decade of nineties (Table-4) one could see that in 1990-91 it was 875 million Person days of work which reduced up to 486 million in the year 2000-2001 and 24 million people were employed in 1990-91 which maintain the figure in 2005-06 where 25 million people were unemployment, whereas in the years 2000-01 the total enrolment of the students was 8399443 in which 7486968 students were in the graduation level and 777073 students were in the post graduation level which person to 98.39 percent of the total students. So, it seems that the overseers in the graduate factory could not engaged in the employment schemes of the government, neither the research output is satisfactory, as only 0.4 percent of the total students opted for the Ph. D degree in the year 2000-01.
One paradoxical fact is that on one side unemployment is increasing and on the other side there are 23 thousand school which have no teachers, in 1,30000 School there are only I teacher (T.V. Rajeshwar Rao, 2009)2
Table-5Declining share of Higher Education in GNP
Source: Alternative survey Group 2001-2002, New Delhi compiled work.
The declining Share of Higher Education (as in table 5) is also of great concern. It is merely 0.50 percent in the year 2000-2001 and maintained the declining trend on the decades of nineties.
So it seems that students join colleges today not because they always wish to pursue higher education but because, in the absences of job opportunities, they have little also to do. They are not interested either in acquiring knowledge or under going any training at the skill level and the result is that they are only marginally better trained than they were in school.
Malaviya’s vision for Higher Education
We know that, this is not to dig the history of the Banaras Hindu University but at the same time we know that as a faculty members of the Banaras Hindu University we should always admire the vision of Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya, especially when we are talking and discussing about the Higher Education on the Soil of Malaviya land. The vision of Malaviya ji was so perfect and dynamic that every solution regarding the problems of Higher Education is there. The motive of Malaviya ji was to make Higher Education answerable in any conditions, period or time. The concept of globalization from the vision of Madan Mohan Malaviya could be seen in the following version “And the creator and Benefactor of the World, the universal soul moving in all, brought together his children of the East and the West, and included their minds to that unanimity which meaneth good and right understanding and directed them to raise this Home of Universal Learning in the Capital Town of the Lord of Universe” (Printed in Copper Plate 1916, BHU) 3 Again Malaviya’s pray was-
“May saraswati, in earnate in the Shruti-Heart of wisdom, ever bloom and shine with Worship from her human children, may they ever assiduously imbibe the Vital milk of knowledge flowing from her sweet breasts of science and Philosophy; may all hearts turn to acts of good alone; and may all hearts be filled with love of the supreme!” (Printed in copper plate, 1916)4
So this was the globalised vision and religions trust of Madan Mohan Malaviya to enhance the Higher Education through Banaras Hindu University.
Co-operation vs. competition: The Malaviya’s choice
Today’s era is the age of competition. But where is the place of cooperation in the midst of competition? Could the movement of enhancing the qualitative higher education is possible by competition? We get the answer in speech of Mohan Madan Malaviya. He said “in the main, the character and results of any movement depend upon the spirit that animates the workers; the question is whether the spirit is one of competition or co-operation. The teaching of the latter half of the nineteenth century unhappy not corrected by the teaching of religion, engendered an unhealthy spirit of competition resulting in rivalry and a derive for domination”, (Malaviya speech, 1916)5 Then he urged to the people that “I am sure that is not the spirit of competition that is the motive force of your undertaking. Your watchword is co-operation, So I have no fear unmixed good upon the country.”
Again he said “for all true religion is based on the belied in they are Supreme Being, the Almighty God. And the essence of all morality founded upon such a Faith is charity and goodwill towards all. This is the spirit of co-operation in its highest form.”
Malaviya’s vision was so clear and dynamic, that when he said at his time for the induction of religion into Higher Education, are the matter of research now days. He said “There are some people, I am fully aware, who doubt whether the teaching of Faith, side by side science, can be productive of good results. This assumes that, if religion and science are not antagonistic, they are at least incompatible. But happily, signs are not wanting that the attitude of science towards Religion is undergoing a great change.” (Malaviya’s speech, 1916)6
The Character and Functions of the Graduates of BHU: Malaviya’s Dream
For qualitative higher Education the character of the students could play the vital role, and the functions of the students were defined by their character. This was the dream of Mahamna. The instruction and training in the direct production of wealth which the students will receive in the technical colleges, it is hoped, place them above want, and they will begin to produce wealth before they have completed their term at the University, and it may be possible to give them stipends out of their own earnings during their apprenticeship. They will be established in life as employers of labour, organizers of industries, managers of leveled estates and business house, scientific and literacy men, engineers, professors, religious teachers, conductors of researchers in literacy fields and investigators into the phenomena of laws of nature. Being able to earn wealth by honorable means, they will be above temptations to unworthy conduct, and being inspired by high principles imbibed from Sanskrit learning; they will be men of unswerving rectitude and incorruptible integrity. Their ‘brahmcharya’ will give them physical and mental robustness which will enable them to bear the strain of intellectual work, whether Professional or civic. Their culture will command respect. Their character will inspire confidence. The guarantee of their word will inspire capital for great industrial enterprises. Their direction and control will ensure success to religious, educational mercantile, industrial and philanthropic undertakings. They will establish harmony and co-operation where there is discord and strife. (History of B.H.U.)7
Syllabus of the Study: The Practical Approach of Mahamana
The vision of Mahamana was so farsighted that he knew the basic problems of the Higher Education and as well as of the students. He knew the problem at his time, for what we are crying today. The problem of unemployment and qualitative Higher Education is of great concern today. Yet we are searching for the solution. But at the time of Mahamana the sources of study were to be so fixed that a student of average intelligence; taught on the modern methods may become skilled in some art of producing wealth; and versed in the principles upon which it is based. (History of B.H.U.)8
Character-Industry-Integrity: The tricard of Mahamana
Mahamana Malaviya knew the changing pattern of the time and so he was so dynamic that his main cards to win the game of life was ‘Character-Industry-Integrity”. According to him “There will prove trumps every time before the game is ended. We cannot escape from our share in the game; we cannot be mere on-lookers. For good or evil, we are all here to play the game. How shall we do it? Shall we, if we think our hand a poor one, throw down our cards and make no effort to win? Surely not; that is the coward’s way. Let us play it out in true sports-manlike manner, making the best of every chance we get; doing always what is right, even if it seems the loosing game; despiting all that as in a game of cards, so in the game of life, we must play what is dealt out to us; and the glory consists, not so much in wining, as in playing a poor hand well”. (History of B.H.U.)9
So, these tricard of Mahamana Malaviya may be used in the present globalization era where the information age is dominating through information and technology and in the Higher Education to the use of information technology are becoming inevitable.
Information and Technology: Need of the Hour
Information technology has emerged as very important force for development in the twenty first century. The effect and impact of Information technology can be seen positively in almost every sectors of the society. Higher Education is not exception of that. In fact IT has become an indispensable tool for all owing to its strong spread effects and linkages with the rest of the economy. By virtue of its forward and backward linkages, any effort at promoting IT growth will only help the other sectors of the economy. The forward linkages extend to all the sectors of the economy because of its capacity to not only bring out new products but also diversity and modify the existing ones. The backward linkages involve material sciences, software and communication technology. (RIS Report 2001-02)10
The liberalization and globalization era imposes a need for variety and complexity of interpretations of information outputs generated by computer systems. The views about the knowledge-based society in the offing require a major change in the way universities are going to train the next generations of social scientists. Such variety is necessary for deciphering the multiple worlds’ views of the uncertain and unpredictable future. The implementation of these issues in terms of the shift from the traditional emphasis on transaction processing, integrated logistics, and work flows to systems that support competencies for communications building. People networks, and on-the -job learning. The education to be impacted by the universities has to produce individuals who are more social, open, and flexible and are oriented towards problem solving. It is seemed from the above argument that the Universities have not only to revise but improvise and invent newer methodologies to cope with the onslaught of the knowledge based future world. (Fragm 2001)11
Social Science Discipline: A case to be tasted
Until now Indian Social Science has been mainly and primarily dominated by positive empirical studies of a structural or behavioral nature, related to both the explanations of human agency and socio-cultural causation. Majorities of disciplines as well as universities in India, including prescribed curriculum and text book at all levels of education, are based mainly on these structural, behavioral and positive studies. (Ajay Kumar, 2000)1z Social Science Discipline in Eastern Uttar Pradesh is also not exception of it. This is mainly because our entire educational system, especially the Higher Education, is a product of the colonial modernist project which discarded all traditional endowments and achievements of Indian Society. The Indian educational system continues to be based on alien structures borrowed from Western models, values and goals in scientific and technological effort. (Ajay Kumar, 2000)13
In the eastern Uttar Pradesh Social Sciences discipline has also copied the same blind attitude of the western concepts, leaving the ‘values and vision’ of Mahamana, which led to the following:
Incapacity to find a right dynamic balance between practical application and theoretical rig our.
A total neglect of epistemology of local issues, problems and desired dynamic.
An inappropriate choice of issues and problems for investigation, inadequate and superficial concepts and theoretical frame works.
Alienation from academic value.
Last but not least is the lack of the knowledge of information and technology and its practical use for the Higher Education.
Use of IT in the Social Science Discipline
Realizing the challenge of the globalization era we had tried to discuss issues related to integrating IT into teaching and learning of Social Science in Higher Education. Information technology can not only be used as a non-linear media, but also as a platform which can support unprecedented learning experiences. It could be integrated into regular curricula to achieve great value addition in education. It is argued that such developments will be significant only when the teacher understands the real possibility of computer media and directs its use for higher education.
Table-6 Current status of IT Literacy among teachers of social sciences in Eastern U.P.
Have access to PC
Own a PC
Have operated a PC by them self
Have internet connection at home
Recommended internet connection to students
Familiar with educational CDs
Use PC for setting QPs
Use PC for sharing/analyzing students performance
Have personal web site
Demonstrated an involvement in use of IT
Note: Complied from personal observation.
The above table (6) shows the knowledge of information technology in the social science discipline. Out of 200 teachers (personal observation) only 100 have their PC (i.e. 50%) in which only 66 teachers have access to PC (i.e. 33%). Only 30 percentage teachers use e-mail and 20 percentage teachers of the region are habitual to browsed internet and have internet connection at home. The recommendation to the students and use of PC for setting QPs are only 5 and 2 Percentage respectively.
The present situation shows that the Eastern Uttar Pradesh has been slow in waking up to the harsh relatives of a fast changing world. The Higher Education systems run like factory. The focus on the hours of work, the bureaucratic attitude, the lack of basic facilities like computers. Teachers are fit perfectly into the UGC’s design for Higher Education. They are overseen in a factory system of education, where a student may take an examination if he or she meets the’ attendance requirements’ and a teacher has done his/her job if he or she can string a bunch of sentences together and stretch them over 45 minutes.
The UGC’s emphasis is on the numbers of hours taught. A ‘hard working’ university teacher is one who fulfills teaching commitments in terms of completing the syllabus and teaching the stipulated number of hours. The quality of teaching, it would seem, is immaterial. A Professor is seen to have done his or her job as long as he or she turns up at the time stated in the department timetable and delivers his or herself of a lecture that he or she may well have prepared 25years ago.
There are no systems of teaching quality assessment Nobody here, bother to keep up with the new research in their disciplines. But this is not only the fault of the teachers. System itself is faulty. There are very few books in the department’s/Colleges libraries. Access to books and journals, considered basic tools of higher education elsewhere in the world, is highly restricted. Getting research leave or time off to attend seminars or conferences is impossibly hard. Computer system or computer networks are far away from their reach. Facilities are restricted in a bureaucratic manner. Rooms are not available for common purpose or for a group discussion with the students.
Until these changes, the eastern part of the Uttar Pradesh will continue to produce graduates and Post-graduates with little real claim to having received a higher education.
Conclusion with suggestions
To conclude, we can say that there is no difference between Mahamana’s vision and Globalization regarding the Higher Education. Malaviya ji was never against any positive change as he use to say that’ for good or evil, we are all her to play the game’. So here is the time when we, as faculty members of the Banaras Hindu University should admire the vision of Mahamana Malaviya whose main cards to win the game of life was ‘Character-industry-integrity’. Let us accept the challenges of the present era. Let us accept the changes made by the UGC in her golden year celebration. Let us take our Ex. Prime Minister’s Mr. Bajpayees announcement for ‘reforms and innovation on teaching –learning and focused research and development,’ in a sports manlike manner. Let us make a syllabus with the changing world so that a student of average intelligence, taught on the modern methods may become competitive or skilled in some area of producing wealth, exactly what Mahamana wanted to do so.
Let us prepare ourselves to face the situations through learning Information and Technology for the qualitative Higher Education. Let us replace the hierarchy in its traditional sense by organized networks of influence. Let us make our institutions different from others with the value addition of Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya’s vision.
T.V. Rajeshwar, Rao, Governer, U.P., Speech delivered at convocation function of Purvanchal University jaunpur, 24th March 2009, Published in Dainik Jagran. March 25, 2009.
Copper plate writing, 1916, from the history of the Banaras Hindu University, by Dar S.L. & Somaskandan. S., B.H.U., Press, 1966.
Malaviya’s speech as Pro-Chancellor in 1916, from the history of the Banaras Hindu University, by Dar S. L. & Somaskandan.s., B.H.U., Press, 1966.
South Asia Development & cooperation Report 2001/02, RIS, New Delhi, 2002
Faragm; M.N., Role of University in Developing Leadership, Indian Horizons, Vol. 48, No.2, April- June-2001
Ajay Kumar, Indigevrus Knowledge: Social Science in Indian Context, Mainstream, Vol. XXXVIII No. 38, Sept 9, 2000